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The term “psychobiotics” as a novel class of probiotics that suggest potential applications in treating psychiatric diseases. The majority of psychobiotic research is performed using animal studies which induce stress and conduct behavioral tests to rodents to evaluate motivation, anxiety, and depression.
Psychobiotics may regulate the neurotransmitters and proteins, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, glutamate and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which play important roles in controlling the neural excitatory-inhibitory balance, mood, cognitive functions, learning and memory processes.
If you’ve ever “gone with your gut” to make a decision or felt “butterflies in your stomach” when nervous, you’re likely getting signals from an unexpected source: your second brain. Hidden in the walls of the digestive system, this “brain in your gut” is revolutionizing medicine’s understanding of the links between digestion, mood, health and even the way you think.
Scientists call this little brain the enteric nervous system (ENS). And it’s not so little. The ENS is two thin layers of more than 100 million nerve cells lining your gastrointestinal tract from esophagus to rectum.
Intestinal microbiota or the microbiome is considered to be associated with the neuro–endocrine–immune pathways, generating the concept of the gut–brain axis.
What if you could use a probiotic extract that confers specific benefits for mood, motivation cognitive and stress management and also has brilliant digestive benefits?
PS23 is a patented probiotic extract with the clinically proven benefits:
ASD - AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS
THIS PATENTED PROBIOTIC EXTRACT HAS THE FOLLOWING CLINICAL CLAIMS AS PER THE PATENT
In one embodiment, the PS23 cells can be used in the form of whole bacteria which are viable cells or dead cells.
The first evidence of the gut–brain axis came from a work of an army surgeon through monitoring gastric juices secreted by intragastric fistula he found that intestinal function was related with mood (4).
About 60% of anxiety and depression patients are described to have intestinal function disturbance, such as in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Recently, IBS has also been related to changes in intestinal microbiota, including reduced microbiota species and genus potent instability.
Meanwhile, many animal studies suggest that intestinal microbiota disturbances could induce an increased visceral pain response and changes of brain chemistry and behavior (5).
One study proposed that acute mania patients had more antibiotics prescriptions (6).
For female patients these prescriptions were related to urinary-tract infections, while for male patients prescriptions were for respiratory and skin surface infections, the study showed that the increased antibiotics prescriptions was related with mania severity (6).
The authors proposed three possible mechanisms: (i) potent infection activated the immune system and then induced mania; (ii) high bacterial infections in mania patients reflected the low response state of the immune system; and (iii) the usage of antibiotics could have changed the microbiota, which itself could increase the risk of mood state change (6).
A decade ago, the notion that the bacteria in your gut could guide your behavior and mental health was seen as "very fringe and kind of kooky," says Faith Dickerson, PhD, MPH, a clinical psychologist at the Sheppard Pratt Health System in Baltimore who studies the role of infectious and immune factors in serious mental illness.
Today, it’s well established that the trillions of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract—collectively known as the microbiome—influence health in countless ways. Inside the gut, those microscopic puppet masters program the developing immune system, help us make nutrients, defend against infection and produce neurochemicals important for brain function.
In the past several years, researchers have compiled convincing evidence that suggests the gut and its resident microorganisms influence mental health and cognition as well. "We refer to this as the microbiome-gut-brain axis, and that axis is bidirectional," says Christopher Lowry, PhD, an associate professor of integrative physiology at the University of Colorado Boulder who studies the neural mechanisms that underlie stress-related physiology and emotional behavior. "The microbiome and gut are communicating with the brain, and conversely the brain is communicating with the gut and the microbiome."
For many decades, scientists have observed links between the gut and the nervous system. Researchers have described an important "second brain" in the gut, a complex network of neurons and neurotransmitters known as the enteric nervous system. Meanwhile, scientists have
noted that gut problems and mental health disorders often coincide. "There are a number of different kinds of evidence for this gut-brain connection," says Dickerson.
People with gastrointestinal disorders have higher-than-average rates of neuropsychiatric problems such as bipolar disorder and depression, she notes, while people with schizophrenia often have blood markers suggestive of gastrointestinal inflammation. People with autism spectrum disorder, too, have higher rates of gastrointestinal problems than the general population.
Maternal separation (MS) has been developed as a model for inducing stress and depression in studies using rodents. The concept of the gut–brain axis suggests that gut health is essential for brain health. Here, we present the effects of administration of a probiotic, Lactobacillus paracasei PS23 (PS23), to MS mice against psychological traits including anxiety and depression. The administration of live and heat-killed PS23cells showed positive behavioural effects on MS animals, where exploratory tendencies and mobility were increased in behavioural tests, indicating reduced anxiety and depression compared to the negative control mice (P<0.05). Mice administered with both live and heat-killed PS23 cells also showed lower serum corticosterone levels accompanied by higher serum anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels, compared to MS separated mice (P<0.05), indicating a stress-elicited response affiliated with increased immunomodulatory properties. Assessment of neurotransmitters in the brain hippocampal region revealed that PS23 affected the concentrations of dopaminergic metabolites differently than the control, suggesting that PS23 may have improved MS-induced stress levels via neurotransmitter pathways such as dopamine or other mechanisms not addressed in the current study. Our study illustrates the potential of a probiotic in reversing abnormalities induced by early life stress and could be an alternative for brain health along the gut–brain axis.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) comprises a complex group of disorders of neuronal development characterized by social and communication impairment along with presence of repetitive and restrictive behaviors. Emerging evidences support the gut-brain axis and further microbiota-gut-brain axis. Elevated prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction in individuals with ASD suggested that targeting gut may benefit patients with ASD. Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS123) was reported to be a psychobiotic in several animal studies which modulated the levels of neurotransmitters in different brain areas. The current randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to investigate the psychophysiological effects of PS123 in preschool children with ASD.
Emerging evidences support the gut-brain axis and further microbiota-gut-brain axis. Elevated prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction in individuals with ASD suggested that targeting gut may benefit patients with ASD. Lactobacillus plantarum PS123 (PS123) was reported to be a psychobiotic in several animal studies which modulated the levels of neurotransmitters in different brain areas. The current randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to investigate the psychophysiological effects of PS123 in preschool children with ASD.
The central nervous system and in particular hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis (in dashed line) can be activated in response to environmental factors, such as emotion or stress. HPA is finalized to cortisol release and is driven by a complex interaction between amygdala (AMG), hippocampus (HIPP), and hypothalamus (HYP), constituting the limbic system. HYP secretion of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulates adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion from pituitary gland that, in turn, leads to cortisol release from the adrenal glands. In parallel, the central nervous system communicates along both afferent and efferent autonomic pathways (SNA) with different intestinal targets such as enteric nervous system (ENS), muscle layers and gut mucosa, modulating motility, immunity, permeability and secretion of mucus. The enteric microbiota has a bidirectional communication with these intestinal targets, modulating gastrointestinal functions and being itself modulated by brain-gut interactions.
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